Immigration Assistance In North Carolina

Ms. Neelam Bhardwajs Law office is one of the most respected immigration law firms in North Carolina. She has years of experience in handling all aspects of Immigration and Nationality laws. She can also help in immigration matters outside the United States. Neelam Bhardwaj is an immigration specialist who is dedicated to helping individuals and companies relocate anywhere in the world. Ms. Neelam Bhardwaj has provided legal services to clients in nearly every US state. She is committed to providing efficient and quality legal services. She constantly monitors the changes in immigration law to make sure her staff is prepared to handle any potential problems.

Neelam Bhardwaj can help you on the tough road to getting a US Visa. There are around 60 different types of non-immigration US Visas. Her law office will provide you advice and support in obtaining the right kind of immigration visa that you are most eligible for. The immigration process is very bureaucratic and confusing, but Neelam Bhardwaj is here to guide you through each problem you face. All the applications for visas are dealt with by Ms. Neelam Bhardwaj herself. Her staff is constantly keeping updated on any changes in the field, and how these changes may affect their clients.

Attorney Neelam Bhardwaj is widely recognized as a top immigration attorney in NC . Her law office is one of the best immigration practice service providers. Neelam Bhardwajs law office will provide you professional, effective guidance throughout the US immigration process. Neelam Bhardwaj and her staff can help no matter what situation youre in, including helping you get an investment visas, a professional working visa, a student visa, or a visitors visa. You can set up an appointment to personally meet Ms. Neelam Bhardwaj, or email her any questions you may have at [emailprotected]

Medicare and California Sales Tax An Analysis

Theres a rumor going around that a 3.8 percent sales tax will be applied to home sales in order to fund Medicare under the Affordable Care Act. Although that rumor is patently false, there has always been sales tax associated with certain Medicare-covered transactions.

Specifically, if your firm sells medical supplies and has been treating sales under Medicare Part B (Medicare B) as exempt from California sales tax, it is sitting on a fiscal time bomb. Since the program began, the California State Board of Equalization (Board) has been regularly assessing sales tax on Medicare B transactions in its audits.

Even businesses reporting correctly are generally confused about why sales under Medicare B are treated differently from sales under Part A. This article will discuss the different treatments and explain how sales tax applies to Medicare receipts in general.

Some sales under Medicare are always exempt, simply because the products involved fall under the general California exemption for prescription medicines. However, such transactions are outside the scope of this article, which solely addresses products ordinarily considered taxable when sold to patients. (Medical services are exempt from sales taxes in general, in California and nearly everywhere else.)

In order for an otherwise taxable product to be exempted from sales tax under Medicare, the product must be considered sold to the United States government rather than to the patient. Sales to the U.S. government are exempt from sales tax for Constitutional reasons. This exemption has been codified in California Revenue and Taxation Code Section 6381 and is further delineated by Sales and Use Tax Regulation 1614.

Whether a Medicare transaction is considered an exempt sale to the U.S. government or a taxable sale to an individual patient depends on whether the sale falls under Medicare Part A or Part B. All sales under Part A are regarded as exempt sales to the U.S. government. Sales under Part B are considered made directly to the patient, and they are taxable unless some other exemption applies (such as the exemption for sales for resale or sales in interstate commerce). Differences between Parts A and B that give rise to this distinction are discussed below.

Financing and Participation:

Medicare A is financed through payroll withholding and self-employment taxes. Participation is mandatory for anyone within the Social Security system. Most people who pay the taxes that fund Medicare A are under retirement age and not yet eligible for Medicare coverage.

Medicare B is financed partly through monthly premiums paid by those covered under the program. The rest of the financing comes from general funds of the federal government. Anyone covered by Part A is eligible for Part B, but participation in Part B is optional. Once participants enroll in the Medicare B program, they are required to pay the monthly premiums, generally through withholding from their Social Security checks.

Cost to Participants:

Medicare A is funded entirely through self-employment taxes and the Medicare percentage withheld from employee paychecks and matched by employers. There are no costs specific to participants.

Medicare B is charged directly to each participant, generally by a monthly deduction from the participants Social Security check. The monthly costs are considered medical insurance premiums and may be claimed as an itemized deduction on the participants income tax return.

Payment of Claims:

Medicare A payments are made directly to providers of medical products or services under a procedure mandated by federal law. Since the law requires direct payment by the U.S. government to providers, medical supplies sold by providers under Medicare A are considered sold to the U.S. Government.

Medicare B payments may be made either to providers or patients. If a provider has agreed to accept assignment of Medicare benefits (which essentially constitutes agreement to accept Medicares version of “reasonable charges”), the provider prepares and submits a claim form and is reimbursed directly by the insurer acting on behalf of the U.S. government. The patient pays only the deductible, co-insurance or non-allowable costs.

If the patient uses a provider who has not agreed to accept assignment of benefits, the patient pays the entire charge and then files a claim for reimbursement. Any such reimbursement goes directly to the patient. Under Medicare B, payments are considered reimbursements of charges to the patient, whether the payments go directly to the patient or to the provider on the patients behalf.

The U.S. Governments Position:

Medicare A does not allow reimbursement for sales taxes charged on medical supplies, based on the theory that providers are selling to the U.S. government and the sales are therefore exempt.

Medicare B has built sales taxes into its calculations of “reasonable charges,” as stated inMedicare Carriers Manualsection 5213. In accepting sales taxes as allowable charges under Medicare B, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has taken the position that sales under the program are not sales to the U.S. government.

Sales Tax Effect:

Medicare A payments are made directly by the U.S. government to providers under federal law, which theoretically results in sales to the United States as discussed above.

Medicare B payments may be made either directly to patients or to providers for the benefit of patients, depending on each patients choice of provider. The patients ability to make this choice has been interpreted to mean that payments under Medicare B are simply reimbursements to patients. Under this “patient reimbursement” theory, any sale by the provider under Medicare B is made to the patient rather than the United States, regardless of which party prepares the claim form or receives the reimbursement check.

Both the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the State Board of Equalization have accepted these legal interpretations, and it appears unlikely that an effort to re-characterize sales under Medicare B as sales to the U.S. government would prevail. If the law is ever changed to make direct payments to providers mandatory under Part B, the application of sales tax could well change with it.

Although subject to tax, amounts claimed for 80 percent reimbursement under Medicare B are considered to include applicable sales taxes, because the Medicare Carriers Manual defines “reasonable charges” as including such taxes. Accordingly, when providers report their taxable sales to the Board, they are entitled to claim a deduction for sales taxes included in Medicare B reimbursements.

Conclusion:

The theoretical justification for distinguishing sales under Medicare A from sales under Medicare B may not be entirely logical, but compliance with the Board of Equalizations interpretation is the only prudent approach. If you have been treating all sales under Medicare B as exempt, you should now begin reporting those sales as you would report sales to any private party.

But what about earlier periods? If your firm is selected for a Board audit, you undoubtedly will be billed for additional taxes for those periods. However, the amount of additional taxes may be subject to adjustment. This is true not only for Medicare sales but for any area where tax changes are recommended by Board auditors. Audits incorporate assumptions and tests that often can be modified and occasionally can be overcome.

Always remember that you have the right to review any tax auditors working papers or have a sales tax expert review the audit on your behalf. Exercising that right will at least bring you peace of mind. It might also result in significant tax savings.

Criteria for Choosing the Best Immigration Lawyer

When you are planning to migrate to another country or state there are several critical considerations you need to make. The most important of these is to acquaint yourself with the necessary immigration requirements of the country you intend to move to. One irrefutable fact is that migrating to another country involves a lot of hassles. This is one of the most sensitive areas that can greatly affect your residence. So you need to gather enough information on immigration before you decide to move from your country. This process also involves a lot of legal issues which you may not be familiar with, hence the need to have the best immigration lawyer. For your immigration process to be smooth and trouble-free you will have to successfully complete your paperwork. This is where an experienced immigration lawyer comes in handy. Fortunately, there are numerous immigration lawyers in Denver that offer reliable immigration consultation. But this does not imply that there are no inept immigration lawyers in the area. That is why you have to be careful about the immigration lawyer you wish to hire. This shouldn’t give you problems since there is a certain criterion that will make your selection process simple and effective. There are several factors that you need to bear in mind as you go on with your search for the best immigration lawyer. For starters, you need to check the academic background of the Denver immigration attorney. Different law institutions offer varied levels of training. So if you want to get the best immigration lawyer in Denver then you need to consider the school he/she graduated from. Basically, lawyers from top class schools are known to offer better immigration consultation services. The good thing is that most of these schools have online portals where you can get important details about them. The best immigration lawyer ought to have extensive experience in handling different types of immigration cases. He should be in a position to provide you with sensible legal interpretation of all issues involved in your immigration process. This may force you to hire a lawyer who has been in the immigration field for a considerable number of years. Even though there are so many top college attorneys in the industry, they are not very effective in dealing with intricate legal issues. You can also consider hiring lawyers that offer free immigration consultation services. The bottom line is to ensure that your lawyer is qualified enough to handle your immigration case effectively.

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The USCIS, Formerly Known as the Bureau of Immigration Services

USCIS, the word abbreviated U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services is an important unit of the SU Department of Homeland Security (DHS). It was previously known as the U.S. Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services (BCIS). USCIS is fundamentally concerned to play most of the administrative activities of DHS, such as strengthening national security, to remove accumulated in immigration cases, in addition to providing excellent customer service. Director of USCIS has been authorized to report directly to the Secretary of Homeland Security. In simple terms, the department is responsible for the development and implementation of forms and applications for immigration and citizenship.

USCIS is required to perform numerous important tasks which can be briefly explained as follows:ws:

Executing the process related to immigrant’s visa application.
Execution of naturalization application forms.
To complete the process related with asylum and refugee applications.
To supervise the activities related with immigration services and benefits.
To make judgment over the claims made by asylums.
To monitor the judgments passed at various service centers related with immigration.
To issue the employment authorization documents.
To pass the judgment over the applications presented by non-immigrant temporary workers.
The most important responsibility is to issue the legal certificate rendering the permanent resident status to an applicant.

Another important grant that is to be issued by the department is the citizenship application system of the United States.

All these great activities directly related to the United States Government is effectively implemented by the US Citizenship and Immigration Services. The findings and decisions made by USCIS closely monitored and intruded by the Office of Immigration Review, which remains under the supervision of the Ministry of Justice. Executive Office of Immigration Review contains two large communities that contribute to immigration activities is one of justice immigration and the second is the use of Immigration.

USCIS, Department of Government participates in an apartment of about 15,000 employees and contractors of the federal government play an important and central role in performance management, and processing highly restricted immigration. The department is dedicated to the processing of applications for immigration quickly, competently and successfully, and provide excellent customer service through multiple channels, such as the Internet, the National Customer Service Center, Application Support Center, and more. Overall, USCIS is essential for the Office of the U.S. government, which is solely responsible for the supervision of processing, and enforcement activities of immigration and civil rights and to maintain the safety of persons in the United States.

Marek Evans is regarded as a author, Internet marketer and physical fitness aficionado. He runs the internet site fitnesstoday that contains tips on men and women’s exercise, eating plan guidance, bodybuilding and training tips.

Latvia Immigration Visa Processing From India

Latvia is considered for immigration because it is one of European Unions fastest growing economies. This nation located in the north of Europe is a major financial, cultural and commercial centre with the regions largest international airport. The country is a member of premium international organizations like World Trade Organization, International Monitory Fund, European Union, United Nations, Nordic Investment Bank etc. It is also an important seaport. All the above factors make Latvia a very commercially viable centre.
The culture of the country is very open and accepting towards new immigrants with their cultural diversity. Main practiced religion of the country is Christianity. The climate of the country varies from region to region, though at time it gets considerably cold. The population is a mix of Latvians as well as Russians.
All the sectors of the country have been privatized and it practices Capitalist mode of economy. This act has brought good returns to the commerce of Latvia, contributing in the countrys economic growth as well as increasing employment and investment opportunities manifold. This economy also makes the country ideal for foreign investment, as those investments can reap large benefits due to privatization. The country favours immigrant investment and business practices.
Latvia offers a Temporary Residence Permit to those who wish to settle in the country for a longer period of time as it enables them to reside in the country for a particular amount of time and gives them free access to many territories for business. A Latvia Temporary Residence Permit allows unrestricted movement and settlement opportunities in European Union countries.
To immigrate to Latvia, it is important that an applicant must first gather all the essential information regarding immigration and assess the locations suitability with regards to self. Since the immigration procedure is long and tedious, it is advised that the services of a professional visa and immigration consultant are sought. An efficient consultant can make Latvia immigration visa processing from India a piece of cake experience. There are consultants who have been in the industry for many years and have a lot of experience in cases of Latvia immigration visa processing from India. Such consultants will take the burden off the shoulders of the applicant and take care of immigration procedures like application filing, documentation, Visa interview preparation and all such major aspects. A good consultant will look after each and every detail with responsibility.
However, before choosing a consultant on must ensure that the consultant has experience in the field of Latvian immigration. Apart from experience, the consultant should necessarily have all the licenses required to practice this trade and must be duly qualified for the profession. One must beware of fake consultants who suggest presenting fake documentation in order to speed-up the immigration process.

Residence Permit In Latvia, Immigration In Europe

The recent amendments in the immigration policy at Latvia have made it pretty much possible to get Residence permit in Latvia, immigration in Europe based on employment and investment criteria. With effect from 1st of July 2010 the Republic of Latvia allows obtaining a residence permit on new possibilities. An intending migrant can avail a TRP temporary residence permit in Latvia for a period of 5 years by :-

Starting a business or enterprise in Latvia on a minimum investment of 36,000 EUR and a paid tax of minimum 28,000 EUR

Opening a subordinated deposit in a Bank at Latvia or Latvian origin with a minimum deposit of 300,000 EUR for a term more than 5 years

Buying real estate in Latvia for a minimum 1,43,000 EUR in Urban areas such as Riga or 72,000 EUR at any rural area

The Temporary Residence Permit in Latvia makes it possible for any overseas migrant to stay at Latvia for a fixed duration of time. The visa is attached with a certificate on LTRP along with an identity number. The residence permit in Latvia allows the visitor spend good enough time to establish a business or seek employment. During the validity of the Latvian Temporary Residence Visa the migrant can have unrestricted access to Schengen countries and stay at one for a period of 90 days. The Temporary Residence Visa is meant for the immigrant lot that seeks business opportunities in not just Latvia but the entire Schengen Zone. The Residence permit in Latvia, immigration in Europe is especially unique for it lets the investor to make passive investments at the entire Schengen region along with Latvia. The business investment allows the immigrant to avail the convenience on travel without any strict requirements on physical residence.

The application process on Temporary Residence Visa can be completed in just a span of 30 days from the date of submitting the application along with the documents. The temporary visa however requires a good many documents to be submitted at the time of submitting the application.

A passport size photograph

Passport copy

Duly filled application form for the residence visa

Educational certificates

Certification on Litigation related issues if any

Medical certificate stating that the applicant doesnt suffer from Tuberculosis or any similar epidemic/pathogen

Documents that confirm any place of residence at the Republic of Latvia

Salary documents that confirm that the applicant meets the average wage criteria in the Republic of Latvia, which generally falls on LVL 398

Latvia offers the immigrant population a bundle of benefits similar to any other European nation or city. The immigration policy is such that the investors or migrants can make business investments or seek employment under the Temporary residence visa. A stay of a minimum 5 years allows the immigrant to first settle down in Latvia and then make efforts on a permanent residency status.

Guatemala and Enforcement of Foreign Judgements

Executive Summary What we are going to discuss here is whether or not a creditor can come to Guatemala with a judgment from a foreign (Non Guatemala) court and enforce it or make it collectible in Guatemala. We will look at the complications involved and the chances of success which are miniscule at best. I would like to point out that this is a topic not covered by our competition. There are collection law firms that discuss international judgement collection but they are trying to sell their services. In spite of this I have never seen one collection law firm getting enthusiastic about collecting foreign judgements. It is best done through a treaty which Guatemala does not have with any country. We will discuss the matter in depth below.
What is a Judgement A judgement is a decision from a court based on a trial or it could be based on a summary judgment where there was not trial held because the odds of success for the defendant were so small the court just goes ahead and railroads him. Sometimes this happens because the defendant can not afford a legal defense. This is prevalent in the USA. In this discourse we are addressing judgments for money damages. A judgement can have other aspects to it like an eviction proceeding ordering one to leave a house. It does not matter if it is a local court or a national court for this discourse. This is because Guatemala has no treaties for enforcement of foreign judgments but more on this later. The court would need to be contained in a country that Guatemala has diplomatic relations with. Guatemala also insists that the country of the judgement allows Guatemala judgements to be enforced in that country.
What is Not a Judgement A tax lien is not a judgment. Tax liens can come from local or national governments. There is normally no trial preceding a tax lien. There was no judge, no jury, no due process, no right to defend yourself, no attorney present for the defendant, no right to examine your accuser, no chance of jury nullification, etc. This is a government administrative procedure that is not enforceable offshore in other countries. A tax lien would need to be reduced to a judgement by filing a lawsuit in a court of appropriate jurisdiction in the home country. It would be like any other lawsuit. The defendant would have the right to present a defense and have a jury trail. Such a judgement would also then be dischargeable in an ordinary bankruptcy case. Tax liens are practically never converted into a judgement for these reasons and of course the expense involved, time delay to go to trail and so forth.
Guatemala Has No Treaty for the Enforcement of Foreign Judgements It is good that Guatemala has no such treaty. If a treaty like this was present the process of collecting a foreign judgment would be simplified. The judgment itself would be sufficient evidence to proceed with collection. With Guatemala, foreign judgements are anything but a cost effective easy thing to collect on.
Guatemala Corporations and Foreign Judgements Before we get into the ins and outs of the nightmares associated with collecting foreign judgments in Guatemala lets look at the initial problem a judgment creditor would face. We always have our clients use corporations for asset protection. This applies to banking, real estate, cars etc. We prefer to start with fresh corporations formed in the jurisdiction as long as they are anonymous bearer share corporations. Guatemala has very anonymous bearer share corporations. The names of the owners of the corporation do not appear in any public registry, database and the government does not know who owns the corporation. In places like the USA where the legal system has run amuck you will hear a lot of talk concerning piercing the corporate veil. This piercing the corporate veil tactic is nasty and effective in the USA. Try it in Guatemala and you will fail and have one angry judge to deal with who will be less than appreciative of your attempts to import sleazy legal tactics from the USA into his or her courtroom. The corporate veil is not going to be pierced for foreign cvil judgement collection matters. So how does the creditor attack real estate or a bank account owned by a corporation in Guatemala? He doesn’t! You are the owner of the corporation but he does not know that and cannot prove that. Ownership of Guatemala corporations is not in any public registry or database. Going to court and saying well the judgment debtor wired funds from his home country bank account to a bank account owned by this corporation, is not going to prove a single thing in Guatemala regarding corporate ownership. The judgment debtor may have invested in this corporation, he may have bought real estate from this corporation or bought a boat, a plane a car, etc. It does not prove any ownership. The judgement creditor is not going to be able to get into any Guatemala banking records using a foreign judgment as grounds. Guatemala has serious bank secrecy. You must understand that in Guatemala a corporation is a free standing judicial person (artificial person) that has its own assets and liabilities. Your liabilities are not the liabilities of the corporation. This means personal debts do not transfer over to a corporation.
Fraudulent Conveyance The catchall used to attack offshore bank accounts is fraudulent conveyance. A fraudulent conveyance references activity where funds or assets were removed from a jurisdiction to prevent a creditor from recovering the debt. The term can also apply to transferring title of real estate or a car to another to keep it from being attached by a creditor. Panama allows a creditor to pursue a fraudulent conveyance action based on a foreign judgment and this even applies to their foundations. As a comparison Guatemala is not a fraudulent conveyance friendly jurisdiction. Such cases are seldom ever heard of in Guatemala because the chances of success are extremely slight. The plaintiff would need to show that the transfer was specifically designed or intended to remove the assets from the reach of the creditor. If the defendant could show this was not the case then there is no fraudulent conveyance. The money could have been moved to say a Guatemala corporation to pay for services, goods, make an investment, buy a residence, invest in real estate, buy a boat, and so forth. Please bear in mind that in Guatemala the creditor is in the dark. He cannot just subpoena bank records like in other countries. He has no idea who owns the corporation. There are a lot of just about insurmountable obstacles in the path the creditor has to follow. This is why we do not really see these cases in Guatemala.
Foreign Judgement Enforcement Complications in Guatemala There are a lot of conditions that need to be met to enforce a judgment in Guatemala from another country.
Default judgments are not enforceable in Guatemala. The defendant must have been served personally. This means a live process server gave them the legal papers. If the service was by mail, by courier, by publication it invalidates the entire lawsuit and judgement as far as Guatemala is concerned. Dropping the papers on the doorstep or taping them to the door is not going to work. This right off the top eliminates a large amount of judgements.
The judgment must be final in that there is no more room for appeals. This is usually going to mean a few months in most cases.
The court that issued the judgment has to have had proper jurisdiction over the matter. Frivolous cases filed in foreign jurisdictions with incorrect venue or authority are not going to be enforceable. The debtor can always argue that the jurisdiction or authority the court asserted is incorrect. This can then make it a triable issue of fact in the Guatemala courts. The defendant would try to get the plaintiff to retry the entire case in Guatemala if he could not find another way to dispose of the matter. To do this means two sets of lawyers for the plaintiff, one in Guatemala and one from the foreign country. Think big money. Remember that Guatemala has no treaties for the enforcement of foreign judgments. This opens up the playing field to counter attack the plaintiff attempting to collect the judgement. When there is a treaty the judgment itself stands as admissible evidence and the grounds for objecting are most limited.
There is no enforcement if no such claim would be possible under Guatemala law. Guatemala will refuse to enforce the foreign money judgment if the claim on which the foreign judgment is based could not have been brought in Guatemala. The foreign case has to be consistent with Guatemala law. Guatemala law is not as crazy as USA, UK law. If you were sued for sending out faxes that were unsolicited, this judgment would be void in Guatemala since they have no such law in Guatemala. Many USA lawsuits are for civil violations that are absent from Guatemala law and thus not enforceable in Guatemala. This means the foreign attorney will have to retain foreign counsel to review the case and see it is consistent with Guatemala law. Can be expensive. He may have to have the entire matter translated into Spanish by a certified translator at a cost of $10 to $15 a page. Some cases are hundreds of pages. Then the Guatemala lawyer has to read the case which means billable hours. He will ask questions to the foreign attorney so now we get into double billable hours. In any event to enter the judgment into the Guatemala court system in an effort to collect there would need to be a translation of the judgment into Spanish. Then when the debtor started making objections the entire case file would most likely need to be translated into Spanish.
If the judgment was for contempt of court it makes the judgment not valid in Guatemala. This sort of judgment would not be collectible in Guatemala.
The judgment has to not be for default. In other words if you failed to respond to a foreign court action and were in domicile in Guatemala and they got a summary judgment that would not be a valid judgment.
More Foreign Judgment Collection Obstacles in Guatemala The creditor wishing to collect on a foreign judgment in Guatemala is basically on a financial mission, to collect funds. His path is like walking through a minefield. He can hit a number of unexpected or hidden tactics presented by the debtor that will make a financial recovery very unlikely.
First, we have to look at the appeals process open to the defendant. These are the things a creditor will be advised to consider before proceeding with an expensive and time consuming foreign judgment matter in Guatemala. Please bear in mind the defendant (debtor) can appeal any negative decision from a lower court two ways. The defendant can appeal to the Supreme Court claiming the law was not followed correctly applying any of the above noted objections, or all of them. He can also claim procedures were not followed correctly. He can claim the case is not consistent with Guatemala law. He can attack the way he was served. There are many things he can do. He can even file a counter claim against the creditor. The other appeals option is to appeal to the special Constitutional Courts Guatemala has to just decide constitutional issues. How hard would it be to argue that the defendant had some constitutional rights violated in the process somewhere.
If all that fails after years of waiting for the process to work its way through the courts, then there is the bankruptcy option. Guatemala has a complex bankruptcy court system that could be utilized for shelter from creditors. Using these appellate processes is going to run up the bill for the plaintiff substantially. Without the appeals system, the time required for cases can run up to the 3-5 year mark easily. Then add in appeals. and the bankruptcy for even more years. The plaintiff could conceivably go broke or die of old age before the appeals process runs out. They might recover nothing especially if a bankruptcy is used. The plaintiff might never prevail. The expenses involved could be more than the amount of the judgment. By the time all the appeals are used, the time limit for the judgment may have expired (7-10 years usually) and then the case could be dismissed because the judgment is not longer valid, thus not enforceable. And on and on it goes. Such collection efforts are indeed rarely ever seen in Guatemala.
Summary If you have read this you are looking for a secure offshore asset protection jurisdiction and structure. We have several excellent options. Please bear in mind the perfect jurisdiction and structure does not exist. There is always going to be a give and take scenario. We have managed to isolate a few excellent options but there is no perfect solution that meets the needs of everyone. We do try though!

Tenants – lease or buy

Introduction: This article is based on common sense and a lot of experience. When your business requires its own premises a decision must be made as to whether to lease or purchase commercial property. If the answer is not immediately obvious to you, here are some of the considerations:

1. Available finances: Your first consideration will be based on whether you can afford to buy. If you can, but only just, is it worth pushing to own the property to save your money being poured into someone elses hand if you instead, choose to rent. Of course your calculations will be based on interest rates and rates of return on property. Interest rates vary according to the economic cycle and a number of other factors. Rates of return on investment in property vary according to the interest rate cycle, and also to the type of business property. An investor in a substantial shop property in NSW for example, might expect a return of 5%, whereas an investor in industrial property in say, Newcastle, may seek a return of 10% or even 12%. This difference reflects the market’s perception of risk.

On a pure comparative cost calculation, you should therefore set out the figures comparing the total cost of being your own landlord, as against the total cost of someone else being your landlord. If you are looking at a rent of, say, $30,000 per year against a purchase at $300,000, then you need to be able to borrow at less than 10% for the cash flow effect of your purchase to be better than the cash flow effect of a lease (ignoring capital repayments).

2. Capital appreciation: In the long term the capital value of your purchased property will increase at least in line with inflation. For property, the “”long term”” can be said to be the life of an average building, so we are talking “”really, long term””. Even this however, is subject to other influences and trends. Over the last ten years the changing structure of the workforce has reduced the demand for industrial and older business property. Your motor repair workshop may only be worth the same number of dollars today as it was worth ten years ago. In real terms you have probably lost half its value. Even if you use a professional surveyor to advice on today’s values, you will still need to take your own view on future values. In a property lease the risk is taken by your landlord. The rent is likely to be fixed for a number of years, and will then be increased in line with the general level of rents for similar properties.

3. Property is always a strong asset in the long term: In the cash flow calculation above, no account has been taken of repayments on any borrowing you took out to fund the purchase. If a large proportion of the purchase price was borrowed from a specialist property lender, with repayments of capital and interest (like your house mortgage), then you may still be able to find a deal which provides a total payment to your lender which is no greater than the sum that you would have been paying in rent. In that scenario, you end up owning your property. That is obviously more attractive than a property lease situation. But if you need to sell your property in bad times, you may not achieve the price you thought it was worth.

Federal judge halts Alabama immigration

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Immigration Tips On How To Have A Successful Marriage Interview

Often there is a misconception that once you marry a US citizen, you have will be automatically approved to be a resident in the US. But it is not an easy task, though they are being credited as husband and wife they have to undergo a rigorous interview process which has been carried out in the United States Immigration system. Here are some of the tips to succeed the marriage interview immigration process.

Tips to succeed the marriage interview immigration:

Not many know the fact that the immigration ins procedures involves a formal interview with the officials in the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). Very often people end up not preparing for the interview without knowing the consequences. The result being high percentage of applicant getting denied of the respective cases and leading to arresting and deporting. The tenor of each marriage interview immigration depends upon the individuals and also the USCIS officials personality. It actually is not difficult as the common perception, but can be made easier without much difficulty or grueling effort. Let us see how to avoid all unhappy things like anxiety and stress out of us to get approved of the marriage visa interview.

Documents Make sure to bring all the necessary documents that necessary to show your identity which means items like the bona fide document, letter, mementos, photos, bank account statements, tax returns, property deeds and any other documents to prove that your marriage is a true marriage.
Time It is always advisable to be at least 45 minutes ahead of the interview so that there is enough time to relax and be well prepared for the same.
Dress code The first impression is the best impression. Hence it very important to come in formally dressed for the interview.
Well Organized Most important of all you should listen and respond properly. Within the allotted time you should be able to answer to the point ,be specific and not not talk too much
No guesses During the interview process, do not try to make guesses. For example, do not try to give different answers to the official by guessing. Prepare yourself well and then answer. Because there are chances that different answers are given to the same question when posed to each of the partners.
NO memorizing There is no need to memorize any kind of answers during the interview process. Its just that you have to remember the few dates and you will be allowed to look at your form I 485
History of your relationship During the interview you will be posed questions as to when you met each other, first date together, etc. Understand that you are not answering to a police man, its just a mere talking to an official and its better to disclose all the truthful answers portraying your relationship from engagement to marriage.

The marriage interview immigration is a simple and easy event, but can become complicated and a painful event if the proper procedures are not followed where both partners are involved. The marriage interview usually takes place about six to twelve months after the application. A proper homework will be best to get approved of the interview. As a couple its just a challenge so face it and enjoy life to the fullest.